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Pan and Tilt

It is more common for crawler systems to use Pan & Tilt cameras that allow closer inspection of defects and lateral connections, providing a 360° view of a pipe's internal surface so that its structural integrity can be clearly assessed. In addition, fish-eye lenses permit a full 180° view without camera rotation; zoom lenses allow the inspection of a defect further in the distance when the survey is halted due to debris for instance; laser systems can measure the profile of the pipe.
Also sonar imaging can assess pipe conditions below the water line and when used in tandem with a Pan & Tilt Camera provides a composite image of the above and below water line conditions – see also the section on T.I.S.C.I.T.
The survey and assessment software available is continually changing and can ensure data entry is more accurate as well as providing service and structural condition grading. Some camera suppliers are also providing software to give panoramic views of a pipeline which can be viewed as 'flat' pipe and also as a predicted external 3-D view.

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